Poseidon (Ancient Greek: Ποσειδῶν3) is the god of the seas and, as "Earth Shaker", of earthquakes in Greek mythology. The name of the Etruscan sea god Nethuns was adopted in Latin for Neptune (Neptunus) in Roman mythology, both sea gods being analogous to Poseidon.
In his benign aspect, Poseidon envisioned himself creating new islands and offering calm seas. When he got angry or was ignored, he would split the ground with his trident and cause chaotic springs, earthquakes, subsidence, and shipwrecks. In the Odyssey, his grudge against Odysseus prevented him from returning to his home in Ithaca. Sailors prayed to Poseidon for a safe voyage, sometimes drowning horses as sacrifices; Thus, according to a fragmentary papyrus, Alexander the Great stopped on the Greek coast before the Battle of Issus and resorted to prayers, "invoking the sea god Poseidon, for which he ordered a four-horse chariot to be launched into the sea." waves"
According to Pausanias, Poseidon was, along with Gaea and Themis, one of the divinities to which the Delphi oracle belonged before the Olympian Apollo replaced them. 5 Apollo and Poseidon collaborated closely in many areas: in colonization, for example, Delphic Apollo gave permission to leave and settle, while Poseidon took care of the colonizers on their journey and provided purifying water for the founding sacrifice. In his Anabasis, Xenophon describes a group of Spartan soldiers singing a paean to Poseidon, a type of hymn normally intended for Apollo.